Gonzalez, Adam M.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Burgos, William; Manalo, Edwin; Weise, Keon; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R. (2012). Performance Changes in NBA Basketball Players Vary in Starters Vs. Nonstarters Over A Competitive Season. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: POST ACCEPTANCE, 29 May 2012.
The purpose of this study was to compare starters (S) to non-starters (NS), on their ability to maintain strength, power and quickness during a competitive NBA season. Twelve NBA players were assessed at the beginning and end of the competitive season. However, due to trades and injury, only seven (S = 4, NS = 3) players (28.2 +/- 3.4 y; 200.9 +/- 9.4 cm; 104.7 +/- 13.9 kg; 7.2 +/- 1.9 % body fat) participated in both testing sessions and underwent analysis. Anthropometric, performance (repetitive vertical jump power [VJP], squat power [SQT power], and reaction time) and subjective feelings of energy, focus, alertness, and fatigue were recorded during each testing session. Results were interpreted using magnitude-based statistics to make inferences on true differences between starters and non-starters using the unequal variances t-statistic. Starters played an average of 27.8 +/- 6.9 min[middle dot]game-1 and NS played an average of 11.3 +/- 7.0 min[middle dot]game-1. During the course of the season changes in VJP indicated that S was likely to increase VJP ([INCREMENT] = 77.3 +/- 78.1 W) compared to NS ([INCREMENT] = -160.0 +/- 151.0 W). There also appeared to be a possible beneficial effect on maintaining reaction time in S ([INCREMENT] = 0.005 +/- 0.074 s) compared to NS ([INCREMENT] = 0.047 +/- 0.073 s). In addition, no clear difference in [DELTA] SQT power were seen between S ([INCREMENT] = 110.8 +/- 141.4 W) and NS ([INCREMENT] = 143.5 +/- 24.7 W). Changes in subjective feelings of energy indicated that S were very likely to maintain their energy over the course of a season. It also appeared possible that S were able to have a more positive response to subjective measures of fatigue and alertness than NS, with only trivial differences between S and NS in regards to maintaining focus. Results of this study suggest that NBA players may enhance lower body power, repetitive jump ability and reaction during a competitive season, which appears to be enhanced with the stimulus of playing time.
I have written about the benefits of playing every player in terms of maintaining competitiveness in practice, and one could argue that these differences would be greater with youths or adolescents because they are in a more developmental period of growth.
Effects of sports massage and intermittent cold-water immersion on recovery from matches by basketball players. Anne Delextrat, Julio Calleja-González, Audrey Hippocrate, Neil David Clarke. Journal of Sports Sciences. 31 Aug 2012.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent cold-water immersion and massage on perceptual and performance markers of recovery by basketball players after competitive matches. Eight men (age 23 ± 3 years; stature 190.5 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 90.3 ± 9.6 kg; body fat 12.8 ± 4.8%) and eight women (age 22 ± 2 years; stature 179.0 ± 8.5 cm; body mass 77.6 ± 9.2 kg; body fat 22.5 ± 6.6%) basketball players participated. Massage, cold-water immersion or control were applied immediately after competitive matches, followed by assessments of perceptual measures of recovery and physical performance, countermovement jump and repeated-sprint ability 24 h after intervention. There was lower perception of fatigue overall and in the legs immediately after the massage and cold-water immersion condition (P < 0.001; = 0.91). Furthermore, women had a lower perception of fatigue in cold-water immersion than massage at any testing time (P < 0.001; = 0.37). Jump performance was greater after cold-water immersion than the control condition (P = 0.037, = 0.37). There was no effect of any of the recovery interventions on repeated-sprint measures (P at best 0.067, at best 0.68). The results suggest that both massage and cold-water immersion improve perceptual measures of recovery. Furthermore, cold-water immersion improves jump performance although neither such immersion nor massage had an effect on repeated-sprint ability. This suggests that, overall, cold-water immersion is more useful than massage in the recovery from basketball matches, especially in women.